Mold Exposure a Real Threat to Health

According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), indoor mold grows best in damp and humid conditions, but spores from mold can survive even harsh dry conditions. Molds are a type of fungi that are found both indoors and out. 

Areas like basements, laundry rooms, and bathrooms are common places for mold growth because they tend to be generally damp and humid. But mold can also result from negligence; for example, from leaky pipes in walls, water damage from roof leaks, or flooded basements from improper drainage. Just because you can’t see the mold doesn’t mean it’s not there – any major water spill could result in harmful mold.

For those with sensitivity to mold, “exposure to molds can cause symptoms such as nasal stuffiness, eye irritation, wheezing, or skin irritation.”[1] More severe reactions are also possible, including, in rare circumstances, mold infection of the lungs.[2]

The Institute of Medicine, in 2004, “found there was sufficient evidence to link indoor exposure to mold with upper respiratory tract symptoms, cough, and wheeze in otherwise healthy people; [and] with asthma symptoms in people with asthma . . .”[3]

According to the CDC, the specific type of mold does not generally matter; if you are sensitive to mold and see mold in your home, you should have it removed. Even small amounts of mold can cause health problems for individuals with mold sensitivity. “Standards for judging what is and what is not an acceptable or tolerable quantity of mold have not been established.”[4]

When should you see a doctor? According to the CDC, if you have been exposed to mold and think you are suffering symptoms as a result, you should see your family doctor. Your doctor can then diagnose if you have a mold allergy or infection and may refer you to a specialist.

If you think you’ve been exposed to mold due to negligence and suffered an injury as a result, see a doctor, and, as always, please call Groth Law Firm, S.C. with any questions. We are available 24/7 to discuss your options as the victim of negligence that has caused you injury. Our initial consultations are always free.

[1] https://www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm

[2] https://www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm

[3] https://www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm

[4] https://www.cdc.gov/mold/faqs.htm

Thou Shall Not Envy

Thou Shall Not Envy

Massage Envy. Once the envy of all fast-food-like massage therapy chains, the company has come under fire in recent weeks as at least 180 sexual assaults have been reported. In the shadows of (taking a deep breath) Harvey Weinstein, Matt Lauer, Kevin Spacey, Oliver Stone, Charlie Rose, Louis C.K., Steven Segal, Sen. Al Franken, Dustin Hoffman, and Jeremy Piven (the guy who played an agent called “turtle” for some reason), it seems Massage Envy is just the latest in a long line of big names to be linked to sexual assault.

Unfortunately, while 180 assaults have been reported (to date), the sad truth is that more and more are expected to come forward. In a society where sexual assault is becoming commonplace, more brave victims are finally standing up, speaking out, and being heard. While Massage Envy is certainly not the last major corporation to be rocked by such allegations, with locations in 49 states it has certainly brought the conversation out of Hollywood and into the homes of every family across the country. As the discussion deepens, we here at Groth Law Firm want to assure you that you are not alone.

If you, or someone you know, has been the victim of a sexual assault, you should contact us immediately to discuss any potential legal options that you may have. Our dedicated and compassionate attorneys are available for a free consultation day or night. Our priority is our clients, and we can guide you through the path to bring justice to you or someone you know. Please call us at (414) 375-2030.

“One incident is too many” – Sexual Assaults at Spa Chain

“One incident is too many”

At least 180 sexual assaults have been reported against the national spa chain Massage Envy. Massage Envy in their response to an inquiry by USA Today stated that “We believe that even one incident is too many.” However, according to investigations by Buzzfeed, 180 is merely the number of reported incidents and that there may be many more assault allegations that were settled by Massage Envy without publicity.

The sexual assault claims against Massage Envy come amidst a flurry of recent allegations of sexual misconduct in the entertainment industry. More victims may be coming forward now as the discourse over sexual assault becomes more open and accepting after years of social stigma.

Decades of allegations against Hollywood producer Harvey Weinstein becoming known have brought more media attention to sexual assault and harassment. Seeing people like Iron Man co-star Gwyneth Paltrow, Game of Thrones star Lena Headey, and Brooklyn Nine-Nine co-star and Old Spice promoter Terry Crews come forward and name their alleged assaulters and harassers, may make victims more comfortable discussing their own assaults.

Massage Envy has locations in 49 states, including 14 locations in Wisconsin, most of which are in the greater Milwaukee area. As has been widely discussed in the coverage of Harvey Weinstein’s alleged assaults and now with Massage Envy, depending on the circumstances, sexual assault and or harassment can create civil liability and leave the assaulter or harasser open to a civil case.

If you have been the victim of sexual assault you have several options:

  • Contact the police to file a report
  • See a doctor for any medical related concerns
  • Contact a victims’ support line

If you are the victim of sexual assault, you may also want to contact a personal injury attorney to discuss any legal options you have, up to and including a civil case against your attacker. As always, please call Groth Law Firm, S.C. to speak with our dedicated and compassionate attorneys about any questions you have. We are available 24/7 to discuss your options as a victim. Our initial consultations are always free.  We have one of the few attorneys in Wisconsin that has taken attackers to trial and obtained judgments for compensation.

http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2017/10/10/a_list_of_sexual_assault_and_harassment_allegations_against_harvey_weinstein.html

https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2017/11/27/massage-envy-therapists-accused-180-sexual-assaults/896972001/

Recently, Attorney Jonathan Groth was, again, named to the list of “Super Lawyers” in Wisconsin.  He was honored along with many other Personal Injury Attorneys in Wisconsin.  Congratulations to everyone! The list provided by the Super Lawyers’ Organization is:

SUPER LAWYERS WISCONSIN 2017

Personal Injury General: Plaintiff

 

Jason F. Abraham, Milwaukee

Timothy J. Andringa, Waukesha

Alexander S. Kammer, Middleton

Eric J. Haag, Middleton

Lee R. Atterbury, Middleton

Benjamin S. Wagner, Milwaukee

Byron B. Conway, Green Bay

Christine D. Esser, Sheboygan

Christopher A. Duesing , Lake Geneva

Colleen B. Beaman, Milwaukee

Craig A. Christensen, Appleton

D.J. Weis, Rhinelander

Daniel A. Rottier, Madison

Douglas E. Swanson, Waukesha

Edward John Vopal, Green Bay

Eric J. Ryberg, Madison

Jacob R. Reis, Appleton

James R. Jansen, Madison

Jason Knutson, Madison

Jesse B. Blocher, Waukesha

John A. Becker, Racine

Joseph M. Troy, Appleton

Kristin M. Cafferty, Racine

Laurence J. Fehring, Milwaukee

Molly C. Lavin, Waukesha

Peter M. Young, Wausau

Ralph J. Tease, Green Bay

Robert L. Habush, Milwaukee

Robert L. Jaskulski, Milwaukee

Steven T. Botzau, Racine

Susan R. Tyndall, Waukesha

Theresa B. Laughlin, Wausau

John A. Becker, Racine

Avram D. Berk, Green Bay

John C. Peterson, Appleton

Ardell W. Skow, New Richmond

Matthew A. Biegert, New Richmond

Lisle W. Blackbourn, Elkhorn

Christine Bremer Muggli, Wausau

Joel W. Brodd, Chippewa Falls

George Burnett, Green Bay

C.M. “Chuck” Bye, River Falls

Dean R. Rohde, River Falls

Steven B. Goff, River Falls

Tracy N. Tool, River Falls

John C. Cabaniss, Milwaukee

Allan M. Foeckler, Brookfield

Brett A. Eckstein, Brookfield

Patrick O. Dunphy, Brookfield

Robert D. Crivello, Brookfield

Sarah F. Kaas, Brookfield

William M. Cannon, Brookfield

Beverly Wickstrom , Eau Claire

Dana Wachs, Eau Claire

John L. Cates, Madison

Lynn R. Laufenberg, Waukesha

Mark L. Thomsen, Waukesha

Michael J. Luebke, Madison

Robert J. Gingras, Madison

Steven T. Caya, Janesville

Kelly L. Centofanti, Mequon

John D. Claypool, Appleton

Kevin Lonergan, Appleton

Michael S. Siddall, Appleton

Richard T. Elrod, Appleton

Frank T. Crivello II, Milwaukee

Michael I. Tarnoff, Milwaukee

Angela M. Dentice, Milwaukee

Howard S. Sicula, Milwaukee

Jeffrey A. Pitman, Milwaukee

Merrick  R. Domnitz, Milwaukee

Noah D. Domnitz, Milwaukee

Michael J. Donovan, Wauwatosa

Gregory J. Egan, La Crosse

Stephen J. Eisenberg, Madison

Eric A. Farnsworth, Madison

Tom Fitzpatrick , La Crosse

Paul V. Gagliardi, Salem

Dixon R. Gahnz, Madison

John J Gelshenen Jr., Madison

Russell T. Golla , Stevens Point

Jonathan P. Groth, Groth Law Firm, S.C.

Milwaukee, Wauwatosa and Brookfield, 414-375-2030

Charles E. Hanson, La Crosse

Webster A. Hart, Eau Claire

Ryan J. Hetzel, West Bend

Ann S. Jacobs, Milwaukee

Bob Janssen, Green Bay

Anthony J. Skemp, Oak Creek

Kevin R. Martin, Oak Creek

Michael J. Jassak, Oak Creek

Robert Kasieta, Middleton

Steven G. Kluender, Madison

Nicholas E. Petty, Milwaukee

Timothy S. Knurr, Milwaukee

Keith R. Stachowiak, Milwaukee

Kevin J. Kukor, Milwaukee

Michael L. Laufenberg, West Bend

David P. Lowe, Milwaukee

Lincoln K. Murphy, Racine

Frank T. Pasternak, Brookfield

Jeffrey R. Zirgibel, Brookfield

William M. Pemberton, Baraboo

Douglas J. Phebus, Milwaukee

Gregory A. Pitts, Racine

James A. Pitts, Racine

Ken Quincy, Beaver Dam

Michael Riley, Madison

Paul J. Scoptur , Milwaukee

Christopher D. Stombaugh, Platteville

Christopher L. Strohbehn, Milwaukee

Jay A. Urban, Milwaukee

Joseph Welcenbach, Milwaukee

Joseph J. Welcenbach, Milwaukee

Daniel D. Whetter, Green Bay

Jeffrey P. Zarzynski, Milwaukee

 

Congrats to everyone!

https://www.grothlawfirm.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Screen-Shot-2017-05-16-at-10.20.03-AM.png

Apple’s Safe Driving Update

Apple Leads the Charge for Fewer Distracted Drivers with new iOS Update

Don’t text and drive. Period. According to the Department of Transportation, distracted driving, including being distracted by a text or phone call, accounted for 16% of all vehicle crash deaths on Wisconsin roads in 2015. In 2016, one-hundred and twenty-one people lost their lives in distracted driving related traffic accidents in Wisconsin. Every year, more than 11,000 personal injuries are caused by distracted drivers.

Statistics like these across the country likely drove a new feature in Apple’s latest update to the iPhone’s iOS 11 – a Do Not Disturb While Driving Feature.

This new feature in iOS 11 is not enabled by default, but can be easily enabled by Opening the Settings app > touching “Do Not Disturb” > scrolling down to “Do Not Disturb While Driving” > and selecting “Activate.” From there, you can set how you want Do Not Disturb While Driving to operate. You can turn it on manually, have it come on automatically when your iPhone detects that your car is moving, or when your iPhone connects to your car’s Bluetooth. Don’t worry though, even with the automatic setting, if you’re a passenger you can easily tap the Do Not Disturb notification and disable Do Not Disturb; and, unlike with Pokemon Go, your phone will regain full functionality when you tell it you’re a passenger.

With Do Not Disturb, you can set an auto reply that will be sent to anyone who texts you while you are driving. You can also customize the reply to your liking. The texter will also be prompted that they can text the word “urgent” to you if there is an emergency and the text will then go through and notify you despite Do Not Disturb being activated.

Apart from texts, Do Not Disturb While Driving will also block phone calls. Though the setting is clever enough to know if your phone is connected to a hands-free or Bluetooth accessory and will route the call through there if available. Otherwise, the call will be blocked just like a text.
iOS 11 also includes an option for parental restrictions that will keep younger users from disabling Do Not Disturb While Driving. This setting will allow parents to lock down their teens’ phones while they’re driving.

With this new setting, Apple has taken a strong stance against distracted driving and the personal injuries and often wrongful deaths that can result from it. The setting can still be turned off, but it is at least available, and users are notified of its availability rather than it being buried in the iPhone’s settings.

If you think you have been injured as the result of a distracted driver see a doctor, and, as always, please call Groth Law Firm, S.C. with any questions. We are available 24/7 to discuss your options as the victim of a negligent driver. Our initial consultations are always free.

http://www.jsonline.com/story/news/2017/06/22/bill-aims-curb-distracted-driving-crashes/419618001/
http://www.zeroinwisconsin.gov/DistractedDriving/
http://wisconsindot.gov/Pages/safety/education/drv-behavior/distracted-drv.aspx
https://www.wpr.org/wisconsin-distracted-driving-crashes-8-percent-2015

It's important that victims of serious animal attacks report the attack and hire an attorney to compensate your pain and loss.

Treatment After a Dog Bite

We’ve seen a great number of dog attacks in Milwaukee, Racine and West Allis.  I’m not sure whether it is kids walking for Halloween or the moderate weather and everyone is just taking advantage of clear sidewalks before the snow comes.  But, there is a definite uptick in calls about injuries from vicious dogs.

We’ve asked a doctor to give some thoughts about treatments after a dog bite.  Certainly, the best practice is to call 911 and ask for an ambulance or just go the ER or urgent care.  Here is some interesting, and useful info, about treatment after a dog bite and attack:

Dog Bites

Domestic animals, like dogs, are responsible for most animal bites. Injuries from a dog bite make up 85 to 90 percent of animal bites. There are more than 4.5 million dog bites that occur each year in the U.S, half of them children between ages 5 and 9 and are more likely to be injured than adults. Approximately 900,000 dog bite victims seek emergency medical care at hospitals in the U.S. every year. One out of every five of those bites causes an injury that requires medical attention, according to the Centers for Disease Control and more than 25,000 victims require reconstructive surgery.

Bites that don’t break the skin are not at risk for infection. Injuries often occur on the fingers or hands. These may involve structures deep beneath the skin including muscles, bones, nerves, and blood vessels. Infection from dog bites is caused by bacteria. They can be found in the mouth or saliva of the dog. The bacteria then enter the wound after being on the skin or from the environment. Infections like tetanus and rabies need to be considered because these are fatal diseases affecting the nervous system if left untreated. Tetanus and rabies are caused by bacteria and virus respectively.

What to do If Bitten by a Dog

The dog bite victim should go to a safe place away from the assailant dog to prevent further attack. Dog bites may cause laceration or puncture of skin, muscles or bones. Medical care should be accessed by a healthcare practitioner if there is a pain at or near the injury site as well. If there is only a minimal abrasion/bruise present, it is reasonable to watch for signs of infection (pain, redness, warmth, swelling, and drainage of pus or fluid) if the victim elects not to seek medical care.

The immunization status of the dog must be determined immediately by asking the owner that the vaccination is up to date or not including rabies and find out if the dog was provoked or not. Anyone who is bitten by a dog is at risk of getting rabies. Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies if treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure, rabies can be prevented. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies, the diseased almost always results in death.

First Aid for Dog Bites

Although we can provide first aid for a dog bite at home, it’s very important to see a doctor, especially if the dog is unfamiliar, the bite is deep,  you can’t stop the bleeding, or there are any signs of infection. The first step with a dog bite is to properly clean and assess the wound. The following steps could help prevent infection:

Wounds should be kept elevated and, if possible, wash the wound with soap and tap water.Don’t use cotton to prevent bleeding, apply a sterile bandage instead.Use betadine or another antibiotic ointments to prevent infection from external environment.If the wound is deep, apply pressure with a clean, dry cloth to stop the bleeding.Dog bites can cause infections that need to be treated with antibiotics.

 

These are some good thoughts about care after a dog bite.   We can’t stress enough the important of getting immediate medical  care.  Better safe than sorry.

As always, please call Groth Law Firm, S.C. with any questions.  We are happy to discuss your situation and will give you and honest answer if there is a case or if there is no need to hire an attorney.  Our initial consultations are always free.

Tinnitus Injuries After A Crash

Tinnitus: Un Antes y un después del accidente.

Increíble cómo un accidente vehicular leve o un tan común golpe en la cabeza puede cambiarnos la vida.

¿Se imagina un zumbido o silbido 24 horas al día dentro de su cabeza? Es verdad, no va a matarle pero podría enloquecerle un poco.

¿De qué hablamos?

Tinnitus es percepción de ruidos en la cabeza, que no tienen relación con sonidos externos o síntomas psiquiátricos, ya que su mente no es responsable del mismo (esto lo diferencia de una alucinación)

Es común sufrir de tinnitus temporal luego de exponernos a un ruido intenso como al asistir a un concierto o al estar en medio del tráfico vehicular de una ciudad muy ruidosa, pero cuando es permanente es realmente un problema de salud.

Las causas más frecuentes de Tinnitus son:

  • Golpes en la cabeza.
  • Efectos secundarios de medicamentos como: Aspirina, Neomicina y Amikacina.
  • Infecciones en el oído.
  • Obstrucción del oído.

 

¿Cómo un accidente puede producir tinnitus?

En el interior de nuestro oído hay unas pequeñas células llamadas células ciliadas que son las responsables de la recepción del sonido en el oído interno, que luego se va a transmitir a nuestro cerebro.

En muchas ocasiones se desconoce su causa, pero un trauma directo sobre la cabeza o incluso el ruido intenso por ejemplo durante la colisión de 2 vehículos en un accidente, puede lesionar estas estructuras provocando una disfunción que desencadena el molesto zumbidos o silbidos típicos del tinnitus.

El Servicio de Sanidad de Oregón y La Clínica Universitaria del Tinnitus realizaron una investigación con 2.400 pacientes que padecían de tinnitus permanente; de estos el 12% había presentado accidentes con afectación de cabeza o cuello.

Este grupo comparados con el resto de los pacientes con tinnitus por otras causas (infecciosas, efectos de medicamentos, etc) en ellos los síntomas diarios eran mucho más intensos:

  • Problemas para dormir.
  • Dificultad para relajarse.
  • Disminución de la concentración.
  • Problemas de memoria a corto plazo.

¿El tinnitus tiene cura?

Cuando hablamos de una enfermedad esperamos que la respuesta para tratarla sea un medicamento, combinación de medicamentos, exponernos a estudios o aparatos sofisticados o incluso una cirugía.

Esto no es diferente cuando le decimos al paciente: “Ese ruido que escuchas es un problema de oído posterior al accidente” ya que inmediatamente la pregunta es: “¿Qué tomo para eso doctora?

Es lamentable reconocer que actualmente no hay una cura para esta molesta condición, sin embargo hay terapias realizadas por especialistas que pueden ayudarnos a controlarla basada en lo siguiente:

1.- Exponer a la persona a un sonido asociado a su tinnitus (que es diferente en cada persona)

2.- Se les indica que pongan atención a las sensaciones que tienen al percibirlo.

Esto se basa en identificar y enfrentar las reacciones de miedo y ansiedad relacionadas, que son las que realmente afectan la calidad de vida de la persona con tinnitus.

En un estudio realizado aplicando esta terapia aunque el sonido no desapareció, las reacciones de miedo sí disminuyeron en gran manera.

Por su causa poco clara y lo variable de los síntomas en cada caso es casi imposible curarla con un tratamiento estándar, sin embargo este tipo de terapia ayudan a aceptar la condición, enfrentarla y convivir con ella sin enloquecer en el intento.

 

After a Car Crash Video

 

A car crash happens. Your car is totaled. You need to take off work to go to the doctor, then PT, then follow up appointments. It seems every few hours the insurance company for the at fault person calls, then sends letters then someone shows up at your house. You need to concentrate on getting better and getting the right medical care. That’s one of the benefits of hiring a personal injury law firm. Groth Law Firm, S.C. has decades of experience helping injured people. Our firm is there from the very beginning and are only paid if you win. No risk and much, much less stress. Call or text Groth Law Firm, S.C. 414-375-2030 or go to www.grothlawfirm.com

REAR END CAR CRASH INJURIES

Rear end accidents often take victim by surprise jarring them suddenly which can result in serious bodily injuries. This makes rear-end collisions one of the most common type of auto accidents in the country and a leading cause of car crash injuries. These injuries cost Americans millions of dollars in medical fees, rehabilitation and lost wages every year. Most common injuries sustained in a rear-end car accident are whiplash, broken bones, soft tissue injury, traumatic brain injury, herniation, facial disfigurement/scarring, concussion, wrist and arm injuries, paralysis of spinal cord and brain, airbag injuries etc.

Explanation of some of the common injuries that rear-end car accident victim suffer from are:

WHIPLASH   Whiplash is one of the most commonly mentioned injuries arising from a rear-end collision. “Whiplash” is a term used to describe pain and stiffness in the neck and shoulder area when the neck, shoulders, and spine suddenly and violently move, beyond their normal range. As a result of this hyperextension and hyperflexion of the neck occurs. Drivers and passengers being rear-ended are not aware of these potential accidents before it happens, so there is no chance to brace for impact. Muscles are left in a relaxed state rather than a contracted one. This allows the head, neck, and back to move more vigorously and violently increasing the chances of serious injury. Approximately 20% of all victims of rear-end accidents by National Safety Council are whiplash injuries and of those, almost 80 percent experience pain and soreness of neck lasting longer than a week. Fifty percent have pain and soreness that lasts more than a year. The extent of these injuries varies from accident case to accident case; some spinal injuries resulting from rear-end collisions demand more intensive medical treatment than others

NECK PAIN   It is the most common complain of whiplash trauma which often radiates to the shoulders and to the head and up to the space between the scapulas. The most common cause of neck pain following a car accidents are facet joints injuries, disc injuries and damage of the muscles and ligaments of the neck and upper back. Tenderness and pain of the back of the neck is due to facet injury and it can be palpate by physical examination. Chronic neck pain may occur after whiplash injury and is due to the torn of the fibers of the outer wall of the spinal discs. These tears, then, can lead to disc degeneration or herniation, resulting in irritation or compression of the nerves running through the area and radiating pain into the arms, shoulders and upper back, and may result in muscle weakness. Damage to the ligaments often results in abnormal movement and instability.

BACK PAIN     Although most people consider whiplash to be an injury of the neck, the low back is also commonly injured as well.  In fact, low back pain is found in more than half of rear impact-collisions in which injury was reported, and almost three-quarters of all side-impact crashes.  This is mostly due to the fact that the low back still experiences a tremendous compression during the first two phases of a whiplash injury, even though it does not have the degree of flexion-extension injury experienced in the neck. Accidents that occur at low speeds can also cause serious back injuries. The force of impact can result in compression of the spine and the discs in the lower spinal column. The force of the crash exerts extraordinary pressure on the vertebrae. This will most likely result in soreness and even excruciating low back pain.

TREATMENTS  

Call Groth Law Firm, S.C. 414-375-2030

A common treatment for treating facet joint pain is the implementation of a simple cold or hot compress for 15 minutes 2-4 hourly. Exercise and massage has been shown to improve spasms and stiffness. The most common medical treatments include the use of NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory medications), muscle relaxants, trigger point injections and, in some cases, epidural spinal injections.  These therapies should be used for short-term relief of pain, if necessary, and not be the focus of treatment.  After all, a drug cannot restore normal joint movement and stimulate healthy muscle repair.  Fortunately, surgery is only needed in some cases of herniated discs, when the disc is pressing on the spinal cord, and in some cases of spine fractures.

No matter what your injury or whether you have one or dozens of questions call Groth Law Firm, S.C. and one of our attorneys will listen to your concerns and answer your questions.  Call or text 414.375.2030.

Trauma Causing Foot and Ankle Injuries

Accidents Often Cause Foot and Ankle Injuries

ANKLE INJURIES

Strains, sprains, and fractures are the most prevalent (more than one million people in US annually) ankle injuries, often occurs during sports and recreational activities. But people also commonly suffer these injuries while walking or falling from collapsing stairs or falling of a construction site. Such injuries of ankle are Adduction injuries, Abduction injuries, Pronation–External rotation injuries, Supination-External rotation injuries and Vertical compression injuries. These injuries are usually fracture of bones and strains of the ankle ligaments.  An ankle joint is made up of 3 bones (tibia, fibula, and talus), a fibrous capsule which contains synovial fluid (allows smooth movements of the joint surfaces) and several ligaments that stabilize the joint. Ankle fractures are classified according to the location and type of ankle bone involved. The different types of ankle fractures are:

  • Lateral Malleolus fracture in which the lateral malleolus, the outer part of the ankle, is fractured.
  • Medial Malleolus fracture in which the medial malleolus, the inner part of the ankle, is fractured.
  • Posterior Malleolus fracture in which the posterior malleolus, the bony hump of the tibia, is fractured.
  • Bimalleolar fractures in which both lateral and medial malleolus bones are fractured.
  • Trimalleolar fractures in which all three lateral, medial, and posterior bones are fractured.
  • Syndesmotic injury, also called a high ankle sprain, is usually not a fracture, but can be treated as a fracture.

HEEL BONES FRACTURES

Fractures of Calcaneum bone: Calcaneum bone fractures are usually caused by fall from height onto the heels, thus both heels may be injured at the same time. The fracture may be (i) an isolated crack fracture usually in the region of tuberosity; or (ii) more often a compression injury where the bone is shattered like an egg shell. The degree of displacement varies according to the severity of trauma. The fracture may be one of the following types

  • Undisplaced fractures resulting from a minimal trauma
  • Extra-articular fracture where the articular surface remain intact, and the force splits the calcaneal tuberosity
  • Intra-articular fracture when the articular surface of the calcaneum fails to withstand the stress. It is shattered and driven downwards into the body of the bone, crushing the delicate trabeculae of the cancellous bone into powder. This is commonest type of fracture.

Fractures of the Tarsal bones: Fracture of Talus bone: Fracture of neck of the talus results from forced dorsiflexion of the ankle. This may be associated with dislocation of the body of the talus backward, out of the ankle-mortise. Vascularity of the body of the talus may be compromised.

Fractures and dislocation of other Tarsal bones are uncommon.

Fractures of Metatarsal bones are caused by direct violence from a heavy object falling onto the foot. A metatarsal fracture can be caused by repeated stress without any specific injury (march Fracture).One or more metatarsal fractures of the shaft of the bones can be due to crush injuries.

Fractures of Phalanges of the Toes   These are common injuries, most often resulting from fall of a heavy object, or twisting of the toes. The great toe is injured most commonly.

Our law firm has handled many cases involving ankle and foot fractures.  We have deposed foot and ankle surgeons, life care planners and vocational experts in order to get the proper testimony into evidence.  Call Groth Law Firm S.C. and our Milwaukee, Wisconsin attorneys with any questions you may have.